Announcer: Welcome to the How World War I changed America podcast series, sponsored by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation with host Dr. Libby O'Connell.


Libby O'Connell: Welcome everybody to our podcast on Red Summer. This is Dr. Libby O'Connell. We're very pleased today to have as our guest, Dr. Chris Capozzola, professor at MIT. Welcome, Chris. Thank you for joining us today.


Chris Cappozola: Thank you for having me with you.


Libby O'Connell: I heard you speak about Red Summer a few years ago and I thought this is the guy I really want to have back talking about it because it's just an amazing story that I think very few Americans know about. I wanted to just back up a little bit and frame it because Red Summer is in 1919 the summer after the end of World War I, but I want you to talk a little bit about, or just sort of broad brush strokes about race relations in America before World War I. Well how would you describe race relations in the United States from the end of the 19th century into the 20th century?